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ἔπος

Page history last edited by ShareRiff 9 years, 6 months ago

ἔπος , older ϝέπος SIG9 (v. infr.), etc., εος, τό (Skt.

A. vácas 'word', 'hymn', cf. εἶπον):
I. word, παύρῳ ἔπει in short utterance, Pi.O. 13.98 ; “ἐπέων κόσμοςParm.8.52, Democr.21 ; “ἔπους σμικροῦ χάρινS. OC443 ; “λόγοι ἔπεσι κοσμηθέντεςTh.3.67 : generally, that which is uttered in words, speech, tale,ἔπος ἐρέεινIl.3.83, etc.; “φάσθαιXenoph. 7.3, Parm.1.23, etc.; joined with μῦθος, Od.4.597, 11.561.—Special uses,
1. song or lay accompanied by music, 8.91,17.519.
2. pledged word, promise, Il.8.8 ; τελέσαι ἔπος fulfil, keep one's word, 14.44, cf. A.Pr.1033.
3. word in season, counsel, Il.1.216, 2.807, Od.18.166, etc.; freq. in Trag., E.Hel.513, etc.
4. word of a deity, oracle, Od.12.266, Hdt.1.13, etc.
5. saying, proverb,τὸ παλαιὸν ἔποςId.7.51, cf. Ar.Av.507.
6. word, opp. deed, ἔπε᾽ ἀκράαντα words of none effect, opp. ἔτυμα, Od.19.565, cf. E.HF111 (lyr.); opp. ἔργον, Il.15.234, Od.2.272, etc., cf. 11.1 ; “αἴτε ϝέπος αἴτε ϝάργονSIG9 (Elis, vi B.C.); opp. βίη, Il.15.106 ; opp. χεῖρες, 1.77 (pl.).
7. subject of a speech, message, 11.652, 17.701, S.OT 1144, etc.
II. later usages,
3. πρὸς ἔπος at the first word, Luc. Ep.Sat.37.
b. word in exchange for word, ἀμείβεσθαι, ἀποκρίνεσθαι, of an oracle, Id.Alex.19, Philops.38 ; also “. δ᾽ ἀμείβου πρὸς .” A.Eu. 586, cf. Ar.Nu.1375, Pl.Sph.217d.
c. οὐδὲν πρὸς . to no purpose, Ar.Ec.751 ; also, nothing to the purpose,ἐὰν μηδὲν πρὸς . ἀποκρίνωμαιPl.Euthd.295c, cf. Luc.Herm.36 ; τί πρὸς ἔπος; Pl.Phlb.18d.
4. ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν almost, practically, qualifying a too absolute expression, esp. with πᾶς and οὐδείς (not with metaphors), Pl.Ap.17a, Phd. 78e, Grg.456a, al., Arist.Metaph.1009b16, Pol.1252b29, D.9.47, etc. ; opp. ὄντως or ἀκριβεῖ λόγῳ, Pl.Lg.656e, R.341b ; later “ὡς . ἐστὶν εἰπεῖνPOxy.67.14(iv A.D.) ; in Trag., “ὡς εἰπεῖν .” A.Pers.714(troch.), E.Heracl.167,Hipp.1162, once in Pl.,Lg.967b(s.v.l.).
III. of single words, esp. with ref. to etymology or usage, Id.2.30, Ar. Nu.638, Pl.Prt.339a, etc.; ὀρθότης ἐπῶν,=ὀρθοέπεια (q.v.), Ar.Ra. 1181 ; ἄριστ᾽ ἐπῶν ἔχον ib.1161.
IV. in pl., epic poetry, opp. μέλη (lyric poetry), ἰαμβεῖα, διθύραμβοι, etc., “ῥαπτῶν ἐπέων ἀοιδοίPi.N.2.2 ; “τὰ Κύπρια ἔπεαHdt.2.117, cf. Th.1.3, X.Mem.1.4.3, Pl.R.379a, etc. ; “ἔπεά τε ποιεῖν πρὸς λύραν τ᾽ ἀείδεινTheoc.Ep.21.6 ; “νικήσας ἔποςIG3.1020 ; ποητὴς ἐπῶν ib.7.3197.9 (Orchom. Boeot.), cf. OGI51.37 (Egypt, iii B.C.).
b. generally, poetry, even lyrics, Alcm.25(prob.), Pi.O.3.8, etc.
c. lines, verses, esp. of spoken lines in the drama, Ar.Ra.862, 956, etc. : sg., verse, line of poetry, Hdt.4.29, Pl.Min. 319d ; group of verses, Id.R.386c, Hdt.7.143.
d. lines of writing, “μυρίων ἐπῶν μῆκοςIsoc.12.136 ; ἐν ὅλοις ἑπτὰ ἔπεσι παραδραμεῖν, of a historian, Luc.Hist.Conscr.28.

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